FPC, 550 High Street, Suite 220, Auburn, CA 95603; (530) 823-0706, E-mail info@fpcmag.com

What's New at FPC?

The News follows! (Scroll Down for Calendar Items.)

To get the "Rest of the Story," Subscribe Today!


Featured Websites

Relmark Group — Risk Management Advocates for Fire Sprinkler Contractors

Source for Designers:

Need Designers?
    You’re invited to meet the exceptional graduates of Seneca College.
    For job posting e-mail or fax job descriptions to Fax: 416-494-9178

* Counterfeit Sprinkler Warning *

UL Warns of Counterfeit Fire Sprinklers (Release 14PN-9)
    The following is a notification from UL that the fire sprinklers identified bear counterfeit UL Certification Marks for the United States and Canada. The fire sprinklers have not been evaluated by UL to the appropriate Standards for Safety and it is unknown if the fire sprinklers comply with any safety requirements.
    Although the fire sprinklers wrench boss is marked "TYCO" and the thermo bulbs are marked "JOB F5" the fire sprinklers were not manufactured or labeled by Tyco and the thermo bulbs were not manufactured or labeled by Job, GmbH., affiliates or agents.
    Name of Product: Upright TY3151; Pendent TY3251; Horizontal Sidewall PS007.
    Location: The sprinklers have been found in Vietnam and India. UL has not received reports of these counterfeit sprinklers in other locations.
    Identification: On the product: The product bears counterfeit UL and TYCO Marks and the following information on the upright TY3151 sprinkler. (Location - Vietnam)
    Counterfeit Fire Sprinkler Markings include: UL in a circle, 155°F/68°C, TY3151; "TYCO" cast into both sides of the wrench boss; Deflector material zinc plated steel (magnetic); 5mm glass bulb -Job F5.
    Authentic Fire Sprinkler Markings include: cULus in a circle, 155°F/68°C, SU, TY3151; "TYCO" incised on one side and the year of manufacture on the opposite side of wrench boss; Defector material brass with chrome or painted white (non-magnetic); 5 mm Geissler glass bulb - "G" between two triangles on one side and lot number on the other side.
    For more information and to see photographs go to www.ul.com.


UL Warns of Counterfeit Fire Sprinkler
    The following is a notification from UL that the fire sprinkler identified below bears a counterfeit UL Certification Mark for the United States and Canada. The fire sprinkler has not been evaluated by UL to the appropriate Standards for Safety and it is unknown if the fire sprinkler complies with any safety requirements.
    Although the fire sprinkler’s wrench boss is marked “TYCO”, the fire sprinkler was not manufactured by Tyco, its affiliates, or agents.
    Name of Product: Pendent Type Fire Sprinkler
    Identification: On the product: The counterfeit sprinkler has the UL Mark on the wrench boss. The UL Certified Tyco sprinkler is provided with the UL Mark on the deflector, other differences are:
    Counterfeit Fire Sprinkler Markings: “TYCO” and “UL” marked on the sides of the wrench flat, no date code; cULus in a circle marked on the side of the frame. “68C” and  “SSP” on the deflector without TY number; Deflector material zinc plated steel (magnetic); 5mm glass bulb no markings.
    UL Certified Fire Sprinkler Markings: “TYCO” marked on one wrench flat, date code on the other wrench flat; cULus in a circle, “155°F/68°C”,”SP” and “ TY3251” marked on the deflector; Deflector material brass with chrome or painted white (non-magnetic); 5 mm Geissler glass bulb – “G” between two triangles on one side and lot number on the other side.
    To see photographs visit: http://ul.com/newsroom/publicnotices/ul-warns-of-counterfeit-fire-sprinkler-release-no-14pn-18/.
    Location: The sprinklers have been found in India. UL has not received reports of these counterfeit sprinklers in other locations.

News: (Scroll down for Calendar Items.)

Construction Employment
    Construction firms added 14,000 workers in July and construction industry pay rose at the fastest rate in seven years as contractors bid to attract workers, according to an analysis of new government data by the Associated General Contractors of America. Association officials added that tight labor market conditions have driven the construction sector’s wages up to 10% higher than the all-private sector average.
    “Several indicators show that there is still plenty of construction work available, but the shortage of experienced workers is growing ever more acute,” said Ken Simonson, the association’s chief economist. “With the number of unemployment workers who have construction experience now at a 16-year low, the industry has increased pay at the fastest rate since 2009 and is keeping workers on the job more hours per week.”
    Construction employment totaled 6,652,000 in July, and is up by 215,000 jobs compared to a year ago, a 3.3% increase; nearly double the 1.7% increase in total nonfarm payroll employment. Residential construction employment increased by 4.9% compared to a year ago. Nonresidential construction employment increased by 2.4% increase.
    The construction economist noted that average hourly earnings in construction rose by 3.0% over the past year. Average pay on the constructions sector is now $28.20 per hour, or 10% more than the all-private sector average. Average weekly hours in construction totaled a high of 39.2 in July, indicating that contractors are keeping workers busy as they try to find additional employees.
    Meanwhile, the pool of unemployed, experienced construction workers shrank to the lowest July total since 2000. Today, there are 410,000 unemployed construction workers, down from 474,000 a year earlier. The unemployment rate for such workers was 4.5% in July, down from 5.5% in July 2015.
    For more information contact: AGC of America, 2300 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201; (703) 548-3118, www.agc.org.

Construction Spending
    Construction spending decreased in June for the third month in a row but most segments posted solid increases in the first half of 2016 compared to the same period in 2015, according to an analysis by the AGC. Association officials said spending appears to have leveled off after a strong early start to the year prompted by mild winter weather.
    “The drop in construction spending over the past three months is probably more a reflection of the very strong gains posted early in the year than of cooling demand for construction,” said Ken Simonson, the association’s chief economist. “Nearly every major segment had first-half gains of more than five% compared with a year ago. Contractors, surveys, and the media all continue to report plenty of projects are starting or will soon.”
    Construction spending in June totaled $1.134 trillion at a seasonally adjusted annual rate, 0.6% lower than the May total, Simonson said. He noted that the declines in spending from March to June followed unusually large increases in the previous three months, probably because of exceptionally mild winter weather in some regions. He said the year-to-date increase of 6.2% for January through June 2016, compared with the same months of 2015, provides a truer picture of the industry’s condition.
    Private residential spending was virtually unchanged for the second month in a row and 7.8% higher year-to-date. Spending on multi-family residential construction slid 1.5% for the month but soared 22% year-to-date, while single-family spending fell 0.4% from May to June but rose 11% year-to-date.
    Private nonresidential construction spending decreased 1.3%  for the month but climbed 7.9% year-to-date. The largest private nonresidential segment in June was power construction (including oil and gas pipelines), which slipped 0.7% for the month but rose 8.2% year-to-date. The next-largest segment, manufacturing, lost 4.5% for the month and 2.7% year-to-date. Commercial (retail, warehouse and farm) construction declined 1.6% in June but climbed 8.6%  year-to-date.
    Public construction spending declined 0.6% from a month before but was still up 1.5% for the first five months of 2016 combined.
    “We continue to worry that the slowdown in hiring and spending has more to do with the fact contractors don’t have enough workers than the fact there isn’t enough work out there,” said Stephen E. Sandherr, the association’s chief executive officer.
    For more information contact: AGC of America, 2300 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201; (703) 548-3118, www.agc.org.

Nonresidential Construction Spending
    Nonresidential construction spending dipped 1% in June and has now contracted for three consecutive months according to analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data released by Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC). Nonresidential spending, which totaled $682 billion on a seasonally adjusted, annualized rate, has fallen 1.1% on a year-over-year basis, marking the first time nonresidential spending has declined on an annual basis since July 2013.
    “On a monthly basis, the numbers are not as bad as they seem, as May’s nonresidential construction spending estimate was revised higher. However, this fails to explain the first year-over-year decline in nearly three years,” said ABC Chief Economist Anirban Basu. “There are many forces at work, most of them negative, with the noteworthy exception of construction materials prices, which are down on a year-over-year basis. To the extent that savings are being passed along to purchasers of construction services, spending would appear lower in dollar terms than when measured in physical terms such as square footage.
    “Thanks in part to the investment of foreign capital in America, spending related to office space and lodging are up by more than 16% year-over-year,” said Basu. The global economy is weak, and international investors are searching for yield and stability. U.S. commercial real estate has become a popular destination for foreign capital. However, the weakness of the global economy may also help explain the decline in manufacturing-related construction spending of nearly 5% for the month and more than 10% year-over-year.
    “Though many contractors continue to report extensive backlog, the data suggest that average firm backlog may begin to retrench,” warned Basu. “The only significant driver of economic growth in America presently is consumer spending. Corporate profits remain stagnant and business investment remains underwhelming. Public sector spending does not appear positioned to accelerate anytime soon despite the passage of a federal highway bill last year.”
    Precisely half of the 16 nonresidential subsectors expanded in June. Two of the largest subsectors - manufacturing and commercial - experienced significant contractions in June, however, and were responsible for a majority of the dip in spending.
    Tepid spending by public agencies also continues to shape the data. Despite a monthly pick-up in spending, water-supply construction spending is down 14% on a year-over-year basis. Public safety construction spending is down 8.4% from a year ago, sewage and waste disposal by nearly 15%, highway and street by about 6%, education by 4%, and transportation by more than 3 %.
    Contact: Jeff Leieritz, Associated Builders and Contractors, 440 1st St., N.W., Ste., 200, Washington, DC, 20001; (202) 905-2104, leieritz@abc.org.

Fire Demonstration Promotes Sprinkler Systems
    An item on www.kdvr.com, August 9, 2016, said the Westminster Fire Department (CO) is showed how a sprinkler system inside a home could save the whole thing from going up in flames.
    The National Fire Sprinkler Association set up a demonstration, starting fires in two rooms, one with sprinklers, one without.
    Seeing how the room without sprinklers was destroyed in just three minutes even surprised firefighters. Most homes do not have sprinklers.
    But, statistics show most fire-related deaths happen at home.
    The association recommends anyone who is building or remodeling a home should look into having a sprinkler system installed.

New State Fire Sprinkler Coalition
    The July 2016 Fire Sprinkler Initiative newsletter said, it has been a noteworthy summer for Maryland.
    Following the defeat of an anti-sprinkler bill earlier this year, fire service officials have banded together to form the Maryland Fire Sprinkler Coalition. Similar to the nearly 30 other coalitions formed in the U.S., Maryland’s coalition localizes advocacy efforts in support of home fire sprinklers.
    Since Maryland has a statewide, sprinkler requirement for townhomes and one- and two-family homes, maintaining this requirement is another coalition goal.
    Another bit of good news for Maryland: the Dorchester County Council recently approved a tax credit for home fire sprinkler installation. According to the Dorchester Star, up to a $5,000 credit against the home’s property taxes will be applied to new homes constructed between now and June 30, 2019.
    The Dorchester Banner also reports that the council’s decision followed a live burn/fire sprinkler demonstration by Maryland’s safety advocates earlier this year.
    Another sprinkler demonstration took place in June at the Maryland State Firemen’s Association (MSFA) Convention and Conference in Ocean City. At the event, MSFA also received a $10,000 grant check from NFPA via it’s Fire Sprinkler Initiative’s Bringing Safety Home Grant. Awarded to 15 recipients this year, the grant assists state sprinkler coalitions and other safety advocates in supporting local activities that showcase home fire sprinklers.

United Kingdom
Insurers Call For Stricter Fire Sprinkler Rules
    An article by Michael Bow on July 26, 2016, in the Evening Standard, London, United Kingdom, said the Association of British Insurers (ABI), which represents members like Axa and RSA, is calling for a change in the law after average claims topped £25,000 for the first time. They have surged 165% over the past decade.
    Guidance from the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), led by Sajid Javid, currently only recommends sprinklers in warehouses of more than 20,000 square meter, a stance at odds with the places like France and Holland where sprinklers are compulsory for sites as small as 3,000 square meter.
    The growth of online shopping means rising numbers of small depots are sprouting up to cater for faster delivery, but only 20% of sites up to 10,000 square meters - about the size of two football pitches - have fire sprinklers.
    “While the number of fires continues to fall, it is alarming that the average cost is rising so sharply,” ABI general insurance director James Dalton said.
    There are similarly no rules on whether sprinklers should be installed in care homes or schools, something the ABI is also lobbying to change.
    But DCLG rebuffed the call and said it did not want to “weigh them down” with more rules.
    “Building regulations already cover the use of sprinklers where they are necessary to protect people’s lives, such as large retail warehouses open to the public,“ a spokesman said.
    “However, while sprinklers can be effective, they are not the only way to protect buildings. We want businesses to make informed decisions about fire safety measures that are appropriate to their circumstances, and not weigh them down with extra regulations.”
    Some companies shun fire sprinklers despite becoming victims of destructive commercial fires in the past. 
    Sony’s distribution arm Sony DADC saw its depot go up in flames in August 2011 during London’s riots - leading to £80 million of insurance claims - but it has no sprinklers at its new depot, according to the ABI. Sony declined to comment.
    Most large online retailers, like fashion chain Asos, use fire sprinklers in all their warehouses.
    Asos lost £30 million worth of stock in a fire at its Barnsley warehouse in 2014, but the sprinkler system was hailed as one of the reasons the impact was reduced. Argos also has sprinkler systems in its large warehouses, a spokeswoman said.
    The London Fire Brigade supported the call for more fire sprinklers.
    “As well as limiting fire damage and being potentially life-saving devices, sprinklers also help with business continuity by minimizing disruption and allowing businesses to get back to normal as soon as possible,” deputy assistant commissioner for fire safety Andy Hearn said.

United Kingdom
Fire Sprinkler Business Acquired
    An August 9, 2016, item on www.insidermedia.com reported a £12million-turnover business that specializes in the design and installation of automatic fire sprink­lers, and has a southern office in Kent, England, has been acquired from its founder in a management buyout (MBO).
    Armstrong Priestley was established in Leeds in 1976 and operates in a number of sectors including commercial, retail, education, and industrial. The company’s clients include Boeing, McCain Foods, United Biscuits, Sainsbury’s, and BUPA.
    The business has been acquired from founder Peter Armstrong.

Standpipe Rack Hose Video
    Supporting the association’s mission to save lives and protect property through fire safety education, the Fire Equipment Manufacturers’ Association released an educational video on the features and benefits of standpipe rack hoses. This educational video provides an overview of standpipe rack hose systems and highlights the importance of these systems as part of balanced fire protection plan for buildings.
    “Incorporating a balanced fire protection design in commercial buildings helps to minimize safety risks by providing multiple channels for fire notification and protection,” says Duane Leonhardt, fire hose and interior equipment division chair. “Building owners, managers, and occupants play key roles in designing and executing fire protection plans, so we produced this video specifically with them in mind.”
    Standpipe rack hose systems are just one element of a complete balanced protection plan; other elements may include portable fire extinguishers, automated suppression systems, smoke detectors, and fire alarms.
    In addition to providing a summary of the components and operation of standpipe rack hose systems, the video also reviews the unique features of these systems, including: Quick suppression of fires; One-person operation; Minimal water damage; Pathway clearing for occupant rescue; Occupant protection during rescue.
    The educational standpipe rack hose video is available for viewing and sharing on YouTube and SlideShare.
    This standpipe rack hose video is the fourth educational video created and posted on the Fire Equipment Manufacturers’ Association’s YouTube and SlideShare accounts. Other educational videos include: How to Use a Portable Fire Extinguisher, Your First Defense When Disaster Strikes (NFPA 1126) and UL300 – Protecting Commercial Kitchens.
    The Fire Equipment Manufacturers’ Association is a more than 60 year-old non-profit trade association dedicated to saving lives and protecting property by providing education of a balanced fire protection design.
    For more information contact: Fire Equipment Manufacturers’ Association, 1300 Sumner Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115; (216) 241-7333, www.femalifesafety.org.

Residential Fire Sprinklers Cost Report
    The cost to install home fire sprinklers in 51 homes in 17 communities averaged $1.35 per sprinklered square foot, down from the $1.61 average in 2008, according to a report conducted by Newport Partners (Newport) and released by the Fire Protection Research Foundation (the Foundation), an affiliate of the National Fire Protection Association. (Sprinklered square feet is a measure of total area of spaces with sprinklers.) The new report, Home Fire Sprinkler Cost Assessment — 5 Year Update, provides a national perspective on the cost of installing home fire sprinklers.
    The primary purpose of the 2013 study was to review current home fire sprinkler costs against a 2008 benchmark study, Home Fire Sprinkler Cost Assessment, also commissioned by the Foundation and conducted by Newport, to better understand the relationship between adoptions, various elements of cost such as installation and materials, how efficiency in design or installation may be introduced, and more.
      For more information visit: www.nfpa.org

UL & LPCB Warn of Counterfeit Fire Sprinkler
    The following is a notification from UL and the Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB) to distributors, contractors, fire departments, regulatory agencies, and authorities having jurisdiction that the fire sprinkler identified below bears a counterfeit UL Certification Mark for the United States and Canada, and a counterfeit LPCB Mark. The fire sprinkler has not been evaluated by UL or LPCB to the appropriate Standards for Safety and it is unknown if the fire sprinkler complies with any safety requirements.
    For more information please see the following links:


Fire Sprinkler Calendar:

October 5, 2016
23rd AFSA Virginia Chapter Burn Survivors Foundation Golf
Benefitting Old Dominion Prof. Firefighters Burn Foundation
and Central VA Burn Camp
Williamsburg National Golf Club
Williamsburg, VA
George Wagner, AFSA-VA
(804) 514-3154

October 9-15, 2016
Fire Prevention Week
Plan to Promote Fire Sprinklers in the Communities where you Live and Work!
Your Community, U.S.A.
Contact: Local Fire Service &/or Fire Sprinkler Associations

October 10, 2016
27th FSCATX Charity Golf Classic Tournament
Benefitting the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children
Bear Creek Golf Club
Dallas, TX

October 12, 2016
22nd Ken Houston Memorial Golf Tournament
Benefitting Wake Forest Baptist Health’s Burn Center
Grandover Resort, Greensboro, NC
John Turnage, AFSA Carolinas Chapter
(919) 624-3456, jturnage@umpiretechnologiesgroup.com

October 20, 2016
21st FSCA of SC Charity Golf Tournament
Benefitting numerous burn centers, including The Shriners
Vellano Country Club, Chino Hills, CA
Larry Seligman, (626) 673-5345

October 21, 2016
Mid Atlantic AFSA Chapter’s Beef & Beer
Location To Be Determined
Heather Field, Executive Director

November 7, 2016
17th Annual GFSA Bob Mccullough Memorial Golf Tournament
Benefitting Fire Safety Educational Projects
Hamilton Mill Country Club, Dacula, GA
Scott Donnelly, cfpsprnklr@aol.com

November 15, 2016
NFSA Empire Chapter Meeting
Charlie Brown’s Steakhse, Fishkill, NY
Dominick G. Kasmauskas, CFPS National Fire Sprinkler Assn., Inc. NY Reg. Mgr., (518) 937-6589
kasmauskas@nfsa.org, www.nfsany.org

November 16, 2016
Rough & Final Inspections for Fire Sprinkler Systems
Buffalo, NY

December 2, 2016
Greater Bay Area Chapter of AFSA Annual Gala,
Beer Tour, & Go Kart Races
Poppy Ridge Golf Course
Livermore, CA
Lorelei Sweet Upshaw
AFSA Greater Bay Area Chapter
(925) 954-5031, lorelei@cafsa.org

March 19-23, 2017
2017 SFPE Middle East Conf.
Marriott Al Jaddaf, Dubai, UAE
Melissa Franco, SFPE
(301) 915-9729, mfranco@sfpe.org

Other Dates by Organization

American Subcontractors Association:
Oct. 4: “OSHA Illness/Injury Data Collection Requirements” (Free)
Oct. 11: “Is Your Cash Working for You? Understanding the Competitive Advantage of Cash Management,”
Nov. 8: “Change Orders: The Bane of All Subcontractors”
Dec. 13: “U.S. Election Outcome & Potential Impact on Construction,” (Free)

Fire Tech Productions, www.firetech.com 
Sep. 15: I&T Water-Based Level II, Webinar
Sep. 20: Water-Based Level II, Webinar
Sep. 21: I&T/Fire Pumps Hands-On Workshop: Indianapolis, IN
Sep. 22: Success With NICET - FREE Webinar
Sep. 22: I&T/Fire Pumps Hands-On Workshop: Indianapolis, IN
Sep. 23: I&T/Fire Pumps Hands-On Workshop: Indianapolis, IN
Sep. 27: Water-Based Level II, Webinar
Oct. 18: A-Z Spk. Install. Workshop: Dayton, OH
Nov. 1: Fire Pump/I & T Workshop: Atlanta, GA
Nov. 30: I&T Spk./F. Pump Wkshp: Indianapolis, IN
Dec. 6: Fire Pump/I & T Workshop: Atlanta, GA

National Fire Sprinkler Assoc., www.nfsa.org  
Oct. 4: Rough & Final Inspections: Westbury, NY
Oct 12: Hydraulics for Fire Protection: Westminster, CO
Oct 13: Advanced Hydraulics: Westminster, CO
Oct 14: Pumps for Fire Protection: Westminster, CO
Oct. 18: NFPA 13, 13R, 13D & 14 Update 2013: Suffield, CT
Oct. 25: NFPA 13, 13R, 13D Update 2016: Apple Valley, CA
Oct. 26-27: Inspection & Testing: Apple Valley, CA

National Fire Protection Assoc., www.nfpa.org
2013 NFPA 13: Installation of Sprinkler Systems 3-day Seminar with Optional
Certificate of Educational Achievement

NFPA 13 Classroom Training
Oct. 3-5: St. Louis, MO
Oct. 10-12: Denver, CO
Oct. 24-26: Dallas, TX
Nov. 7-9: Seattle, WA
Dec. 12-14: Anaheim, CA & Lake Buena Vista, FL

Other Future Meeting Dates:

AFSA, www.firesprinkler.org
Sep. 14-17, 2016, Nashville, TN
Sep. 24-27, 2017, Las Vegas, NV

Sep. 30-Oct. 3, 2018, Gaylord National, Washington, DC
Oct. 1-4, 2019, Manchester Grand Hyatt, San Diego, CA
Sep. 13-16, 2020, Hilton Orlando Bonnet Creek, Orlando, FL

CASA, www.casa-firesprinkler.org
May 3-6, 2017, Red Rock, Las Vegas, NV

NFSA, www.nfsa.org  
May 3-6, 2017, Red Rock, Las Vegas, NV

NFPA, www.nfpa.org
June 4-7, 2017, Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, Boston, MA

 Also Visit:
American Fire Sprinkler Association
National Fire Sprinkler Association
National Fire Protection Association
Fire Tech Productions
Oklahoma State University
Seneca College, School of Fire Protection


FPC's Question of the Month

Who do you consider to be fire sprinkler allies?

Please tell us about it, and include your name, co. name, city, & state. Please tell us what you think!
Please send your reply today. Also, please send photos, and advise us if you wish to remain anonymous.

Featured Websites

Relmark Group — Risk Management Advocates for Fire Sprinkler Contractors

"NFPA’s Fire Sprinkler Initiative" website: NFPA’s Fire Sprinkler Initiative

Helpful Website:
    The Building Code Resource Library website may be of interest! It is an electronic library on building fire protection at your fingertips.

    Website: http://buildingcoderesourcelibrary.com/

Fire Protection Educational and Training Resources:
Fire Smarts, LLC

Fire Sprinkler History:
"History of Mather & Platt Ltd." (And Grinnell) By Marcel Boschi + David Drew-Smythe: http://home.zipworld.com.au/~lnbdds/Boschi/

Certification: "The National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET)" For more information, visit theNICET website.

"Fire Sprinkler Coalition" For more information, visit the IRC Fire Sprinkler Coalition website.

"Campus FireWatch" For more information, visit the Campus FireWatch website.

"Fire Sprinkler Academy" For more information, visit the Fire Sprinkler Academy website.

Take Heart
Remember what Jesus said: “I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world.” -
John 16:32-33, New International Version

FPC, 550 High Street, Suite 220, Auburn, CA 95603; (530) 823-0706, E-mail info@fpcmag.com

FPC's Upcoming Editorials

We are always accepting article submissions.
Please go to our Editorial Page for our Calendar and Guidelines.
Be heard! Submit your articles, opinions, and letters today!

Please see our Editorial Page for more information or E-mail Us!

Updated 1/25/2016 by Tami Collins


Copyright © 2010-2019 FPC Magazine.